Post by Emperor AAdmin on Jul 5, 2010 13:40:52 GMT -5
Tomyris, from the Persian تهمرییش Tahm-Rayiš, was a queen who reigned over the Massagetae, an Iranic people of Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea, at approximately 530 B.C.
"Tomyris Plunges the Head of the Dead Cyrus Into a Vessel of Blood" by Alexander Zick
The names of Tomyris and her son, Spargapises, who was the head of her army, are of Iranian origins. Since the historians who first wrote of her were Greek, the Hellenic form of her name is used most frequently.
The Greek historians recorded that she "defeated and killed" the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great during his invasion and attempted conquest of her country. Herodotus, who lived from approximately 484 B.C. to 425 B.C., is the earliest of the classical writers to give an account of her career, writing almost one hundred years later. Her history was well known and became legendary. Strabo, Polyaenus, Cassiodorus, and Jordanes (in De origine actibusque Getarum, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths) also wrote of her.
Map of Asia showing the location of Massagetae, where Tahm-Rayiš had ruled and defeated the Persians c. 323 B.C.
According to the accounts of Greek historians, Cyrus was defeated in his initial assault on the Massagetae and was forced to retreat. His advisers suggested laying a trap for the pursuing Scythians: the Persians left behind them an apparently-abandoned camp, containing a rich supply of wine. The pastoral Scythians were not used to drinking wine—"their favored intoxicants were hashish and fermented mare's milk"—and they drank themselves into a stupor. The Persians attacked while their opponents were incapacitated, slaughtering the Massagetae and capturing Tomyris' son, Spargapises, the general of her army. According to Herodotus, Sparagises coaxed Cyrus into removing his bonds, thus allowing him to commit suicide while in Persian captivity.
Tomyris then sent a message to Cyrus, denouncing his treachery and challenging him to an honorable battle. In the fight that ensued, the Persians were defeated again with high casualties. Cyrus was killed and Tomyris had his corpse beheaded, and shoved his head into a wineskin filled with human blood. She was reportedly quoted as saying, "I warned you that I would quench your thirst for blood, and so I shall" (Hdt 1.214)
Persian and Central Asian folklore maintain a rich store of other tales about Tomyris. Modern Kazakhs revere her as the great queen and independence fighter and the name Tomiris is very popular in Kazakhstan.
Tomyris as imagined by Castagno, 15th century
Eustache Deschamps added Tomyris to his poetry as one of the nine Female Worthies in the late 14th century.
The history of Tomyris has been incorporated into the tradition of Western art; Rubens, Allegrini, Luca Ferrari, Mattia Preti, Gustave Moreau and the sculptor Severo Calzetta da Ravenna are among the many artists who have portrayed events in the life of Tahm-Rayiš and her defeat of Cyrus and his armies.
The name "Tomyris" also has been adopted into zoological taxonomy, for the tomyris species-group of Central Asian Lepidoptera.
590 Tomyris is the name given to one of the minor planets.
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Jul 5, 2010 13:51:59 GMT -5
The Amazons (Greek: Ἀμαζόνες, Amazónes, singular Ἀμαζών, Amazōn) are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology. Herodotus placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia (modern territory of Ukraine). Other historiographers place them in Asia Minor  or Libya.
Notable queens of the Amazons are Penthesilea, who participated in the Trojan War, and her sister Hippolyta, whose magical girdle was the object of one of the labours of Hercules. Amazonian raiders were often depicted in battle with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art.
The Amazons have become associated with various historical peoples throughout the Roman Empire period and Late Antiquity. In Roman historiography, there are various accounts of Amazon raids in Asia Minor. From the Early Modern period, their name has become a term for woman warriors in general. '
Amazon preparing for a battle (Queen Antiop or Armed Venus), by Pierre-Eugène-Emile Hébert 1860 (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.)
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Jul 5, 2010 13:59:24 GMT -5
Boudica (pronounced /ˈbuːdɨkə/; also spelled Boudicca), formerly known as Boadicea /boʊdɨˈsiːə/ and known in Welsh as "Buddug" [ˈbɨ̞ðɨ̞ɡ] (d. AD 60 or 61) was a queen of a Celtic tribe who led an uprising of the tribes against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boadicea Haranguing the Britons by John Opie
Boudica's husband, Prasutagus, ruler of the Iceni who had ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman Emperor in his will. However, when he died his will was ignored. The kingdom was annexed as if conquered, Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.
In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey in north Wales, Boudica led the Iceni people, along with the Trinovantes and others, in revolt. They destroyed Camulodunum (Colchester), formerly the capital of the Trinovantes, but now a colonia (a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers) and the site of a temple to the former emperor Claudius, which was built and maintained at local expense. They also routed a Roman legion, the IX Hispana, sent to relieve the settlement.
On hearing the news of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target. Concluding he did not have the numbers to defend it, Suetonius evacuated and abandoned it. It was burnt to the ground, as was Verulamium (St Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 people were killed in the three cities (though the figures are suspect). Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street. The crisis caused the emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from the island, but Suetonius' eventual victory over Boudica secured Roman control of the province. Boudicca then killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died, Tacitus and Dio differ.
The history of these events, as recorded by Tacitus and Cassius Dio, was rediscovered during the Renaissance and led to a resurgence of Boudica's legendary fame during the Victorian era, when Queen Victoria was portrayed as her "namesake". Boudica has since remained an important cultural symbol in the United Kingdom. The absence of native British literature during the early part of the first millennium means that Britain owes its knowledge of Boudica's rebellion to the writings of the Romans.
Tringe Smajl Martinit Ivezaj (or, simply, Tringe Smajli) was an Albanian girl from what is now part of the Montenegrin mountains of Gruda (Albania) who battled the Turks after her father Smajl Martini, the clan leader was kidnapped in 1911 at the battle of Vranje, his body was never recovered. Her legend lives on throughout the Balkans as one of the most heroic woman warriors in the history of the region. She never married, never had children, didn't have any other siblings. She is buried in an unmarked grave covered with ordinary field stones at the ancestral burial grounds of her family in the mountains of Gruda withiin the village of Ksheve, Montenegro.
The New York Times described Tringe Smail as the "Albanian Joan of Arc".
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Jul 5, 2010 22:04:18 GMT -5
Queen Teuta of Illyria
Queen Teuta (Greek: Τεύτα) of Illyria was an Illyrian queen of the tribe Ardiaei who reigned approximately from 231 BC to 227 BC. However, she was not referred to as Queen by Appian, as she was simply a regent to Pinnes.
Kingdom of the Ardiaei (231 BC - 227 BC)
After the death of her husband, Agron (250 BC-230 BC), former king of the Ardiaei, she inherited the Ardiaean kingdom that included much of Illyria proper, though its exact extent remains unknown and acted as regent for her young stepson Pinnes with the royal seat in Risan (in modern Montenegro). Teuta started to address the neighbouring states malevolently, as her primary stance was to support piratical raids of her subjects.
Illyrian pirates soon captured, later foritified Dyrrachium (modern-day Durrës, Albania) and Phoenice (which was soon liberated with a truce and a fee). While her Illyrian ships were off the coast of Onchesmos, they intercepted and plundered some merchant vessels of Rome. Teuta's pirates extended their operations further southward into the Ionian Sea, breaching the trade routes between the mainland of Greece and the Greek cities in Italy, and were soon feared as the terror of the Adriatic.
Because the Roman Republic felt threatened by the opposing side of the Adriatic in the very vicinity of its territories (where most of the raids were situated), the senate was compelled to dispatch two ambassadors to the pirate lair at Scodra to solcit reparations and demand an end to all pirate expeditions. Queen Teuta told the ambassadors that according to the law of the Illyrians, piracy was a lawful trade and that her government had no right to interfere with this as a private enterprise. She also implied that "it was never the custom of royalty to prevent the advantage of its subjects they could get from the sea". One of the envoys reportedly replied that Rome would make it her business to introduce better law among the Illyrians as "we have an excellent custom of punishing private wrongs by public revenge". At any rate, one of the two present ambassadors expressed himself to the queen so disrespectfully that her attendants were ordered to seize the abassador ship as it embarked back for Rome. One of the ambassadors was killed and the other was put in captivity.
Bay of Kotor and Illyrian fortresses on the hills: Risan, Gosici and Kremalj (Mirac).
Map showing major events and locations of the Illyrian wars with Rome
This was too much for Rome to endure. In 229 BC, Rome declared war on Illyria and for the first time armies crossed the Adriatic to Illyria (the Balkan Peninsula in modern usage). An army consisting of approximately 20,000 troops, 200 cavalry units and arguably an entire Roman fleet of 200 ships was sent to conquer Corcyra. Teuta's governor, Demetrius had little alternative but to surrender and the Romans awarded him a considerable part of Teuta's holdings (228 BC). The Roman army then landed further north at Apollonia. The combined army and navy proceeded northward together, subduing one town after another and eventually besieging the capital Shkodra. Teuta finally surrendered in 227 BC, having to accept an ignominious peace. The Romans allowed her to continue her reign but restricted her to a narrow region around Scodra, deprived her of all her other holdings, and forbade her to sail an armed ship below Lissus just south of the capital. They also required her to pay an annual tribute and to acknowledge the final authority of Rome.
Her rule was finally dismembered by the politician Aulus Postumius, after she opted against Roman suppression. Very little is known of the rest of her life, but she was eventually succeeded by Gentius in 181 BC.  Legacy
Today, her actions are regarded as somewhat heroic in historical annals of today's Balkan region. Despite for her ongoing acts of piracy, she is revered for her resistance and free will against her persecutors. Teuta is depicted on the reverse of the Albanian 100 lekë coin, issued in 2000.
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Jul 5, 2010 22:44:51 GMT -5
Nora of Kelmendi
Nora of Kelmendi (17th century), is also referred to as the "Helen of Albania" as her beauty also sparked a great war. She is also called the Albanian Brünhilde too, for she herself was the greatest woman warrior in the history of Albania. There are two versions of Nora's legend; both end with Nora killing the Pasha, head of the Ottoman Army, who had vowed to reduce Malsia (also Malcia or Maltsia) into ashes if Nora did not become his wife.
The events happened around the year 1620. Nora’s father, a noble warrior, wanted a son to help him fight against the Ottoman empire. When Nora was born, he abandoned her at an orphanage. His sister, knowing the doings of her brother, adopted Nora and raised her as a boy. Nora's biological father, having the desire to train some young man to become a fighter, decided to train the adopted “son” of his sister. Hence, unknowingly, he trained his own daughter to become a fighter. As she grew up, however, Nora turned out to be the most beautiful girl in Malsia. It is said that she was as pretty as a true Zane (mountain fairy). Her fame spread through the whole country. A pasha who resided at the Rozafati Castle in Shkodra, heard of her too. One day, Nora came down to the city with her parents. The pasha came out of the castle and fell in love with Nora upon setting eyes on her.
Being from nearby Bosnia, which followed similar traditions to Albania, the pasha wanted to marry her by the laws of the Albanian Canon, which meant he would send a trusted man to Nora’s house and ask for her hand. However, Nora's family replied that the Albanian Canon did not allow for marriages with non-Albanians. The pasha was not accustomed to such refusal and kept a harem of women from far and wide. He flew into a rage: "Either Nora will become my wife or I will I'll burn all of Malsia to ashes." The pasha then led his army and besieged Malsia.
Nora had proved to be a warrior, but now she had to prove that she was wise too, in order to spare Malsia from destruction. So she devised the plan to kill the angry Bosnian pasha.
Nora pretended to want to marry the Pasha without the permission of her family. Dressed with the djubletah, she went to the pasha's tent. Seeing her, the Pasha fell on his knees and began to pray, believing she was a true gift from heaven as a reward from the almighty Allah for his services to Him. The pasha ordered his troops to rest and prepare to go back to Shkodra. The soldiers happily put down their arms and celebrated by putting their noses into their bags of hashish.
When all was quiet around the pasha's tent, Nora retrieved a war dagger that her father had given her, a dagger that had been passed through her family for many generations. It was believed the dagger had magical powers, for no one who had carried it had died from wounds inflicted by opponents--highly unusual at that time and in this turbulent region.
Nora stabbed the pasha, kicked him on back of his head, and choked him so he could not scream. The pasha fell on his Persian rug.
At that point Nora could no longer stab him because by Albanian custom, it is dishonorable to strike a man who is not standing or to hit a man who does not fight back. Nora fled and, as planned, the army of Malsia attacked the Ottomans, winning temporary victory over them.
The pasha survived his wounds, gathered his own special unit and followed Nora to her home.
In a second version of the legend, Nora never goes to the tent. Instead, as the armies fought, several of the Ottomans broke away from the main body of the army to attack the villages. Nora led an army of 300 women against the Ottomans who had set off to burn, pillage and rape. In battle, Nora came face to face with the pasha and kills him in a duel.
In both versions, Nora kills the pasha in a fair duel. Both versions name the pasha as Vutsi Pasha from Bosnia.
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Jul 5, 2010 23:10:42 GMT -5
The Legion of Death is composed of women who have been trained in the use of firearms and in the science of war. In the Balkan States, where women frequently follow their husbands throughout military campaigns, acting as pack-carriers, camp-attendants, and even as trench-diggers and sappers when necessary, it is not unusual for them to take their places beside their husbands or their lovers on the firing line. There are many expert rifle shots among them, many indeed who are capable of taking men's places under necessity. Accustomed to attack in solitary places, and more or less inured to be- reavement, a kind of grim quiet follows them wherever they are seen.
The Legion of Death is recruited from all classes of women, from the wives of rich merchants to the wives and daughters of peasants. This Amazon corps had its origin in the patriotic enthusiasm of a woman sixty-two years old, whose husband died for Serbia in the war for liberty against the Turks. The women handle the regulation rifles and are held in deadly fear by the Austrians and Germans.
Indeed, it seems that on both sides the soldiers dread the women soldiers more than they do those of their own sex.
Post by todhrimencuri on Jul 8, 2010 18:36:21 GMT -5
Tomyris is a hellenization of a name heard to second hand sources (chiefly Persian). Very likely there is a link between the Turkic and Iranic ones since the two groups lived so close, especially in the area, however the name Tomyris is entirely altered from her probable name...
In that time, however, the Massagetae was an area chiefly populated by Iranic people. Only later did Turkic groups become predominant in the region.
Last Edit: Jul 8, 2010 18:37:32 GMT -5 by todhrimencuri
ulf: well, seems like you were lucky one as my cousin even though he has all the common symptoms: sore throat, constant temperature, and feeling weak - couldn't book himself a testing.
Jun 26, 2020 15:18:51 GMT -5
branislavnusic: sore throat is not one of the symptoms i think
Jun 26, 2020 15:27:22 GMT -5
Pyrros: Guys, come the funkety on, covid does not exist. I dont know if this will upset the demons but I had to let it out. Sorry demons.
Jul 1, 2020 13:09:23 GMT -5
Pyrros: Pssst demons, come on you funkers, lit this subaru on fire, I am gonna get a better one
Jul 1, 2020 13:14:27 GMT -5
ulf: "covid does not exist"
Jul 1, 2020 13:39:56 GMT -5
ulf: I got nothing more to add than this:
Jul 1, 2020 13:40:09 GMT -5
branislavnusic: The saxons are suffering the worst so it's a good thing
Jul 1, 2020 14:54:49 GMT -5
Pyrros: I dont know the state of whesto propaganda in Serbia or the amount of real Death the demons have injected into the society, but here in Grekolandia this is supreme royal joke.
Jul 2, 2020 4:08:17 GMT -5
Pyrros: I mean we are one on top of the other like a massive orgy kind of thing, yet, no covid to be found anywhere.
Jul 2, 2020 4:09:06 GMT -5
Pyrros: Also Admin is of the same philosophy : covid does not exist, it is only a spiritual virtual concept not real.
Jul 2, 2020 4:10:51 GMT -5
Pyrros: false-Greeks hate Serbs. Serbs should only go to Bulgaria. The only serious Slavic land in south balkans who respects other Slavs.
Jul 3, 2020 7:30:03 GMT -5
ulf: What should they do? Watch them spread the disease? Don't be ridiculous, they should be graceful they allowed them to go back home. This mans health got worse after few days, now he is in Serbian hospital
Jul 3, 2020 10:11:37 GMT -5
Pyrros: The disease? ok... Anyways this is not the point. The point is Slavs need to get serious. Stop dealing with haters.
Jul 4, 2020 0:12:24 GMT -5