Never heard of any Norwegian vodka. What's the name of it?
As you might tell, I am not a beer fan
Neither am I. After two or three beers I get really bored with it. Actually, I don't drink too much types of alkohol. Rakia, vodka, mastika sometimes, occasional Irish in the night clubs. Plus white wine in the summer and red wine in the winter. And always with food, I can't drink without meze.
Check it out, you will like its taste, made from glacial water waited for 5000 years in Arctic Norway.
Not all Scandinavian products are to be found in the European neighbourhood. Some places have it, some not. Next time I am in the vicinitiy of Ruse, I'll for sure bring some with me. Btw, except Absolut, have you seen some other Swedes? Here to explore:
torlakian was the same as old church slavonic (old bulgarian) but real serbo-croat wasnt. If it wasnt for Boris of BUlgarian there wouldnt be CYRILLIC and slavic wouldnt have been offical in Bulgaria, and from there probably it wouldnt have been official in Serbia.
Post by Caslav Klonimirovic on Oct 18, 2009 22:10:13 GMT -5
Speaking of Vodkas, distinctively the best one I have ever tried is made in New Zealand & it's called 42 Below...
Speaking of Old Church slavonic, it's called Old Church slavonic because that's what it is. I'm pretty sure I read that the language itself was referred to in documents as Old Church Slavonic. And Ioan how can you claim Torlakian was Old Church slavonic when it did not use the Bulgarian case system keeping in mind that is the same reason you claim FYROMian.
The earliest written sources that give information on the history of Bulgarian language are from 10th to 11th century. These are manuscripts on parchment, mostly transcripts of translations of Cyril and Methodius and their students. The language in the translations represents the first stage in the development of the Bulgarian written language. This language has the following major phonetic and morphological features:
Existence of nasal vowels ѫ /*oⁿ/ and ѧ /*eⁿ/, for example, ïѫòü, ìѫæü, ðѧäú, ìѧñî Phonematic vowels ú and ü Wide pronunciation of ѣ (either /*ja/ or /ɛ/) Vowel û Reflex of the proto-Slavic /*tj/, /*dj/ as øò /ʃt/ (or ø÷ /ʃtʃ/), æä /ʒd/ in words like õîøòѫ, âèæäѫ, etc. Old Bulgarian shows many common features with stages of development of the other Slavic languages. However, the translations of the Solun brothers show a number of morphological and syntactic features that were typical only for the Bulgarian population of 9th to 11th centuries, mostly word combinations like ñåñòðà åè (bg:ñåñòðà ӣ, her sister), áðàòú åìîó (bg:áðàò ìó, his brother), ðѫêà òè (bg:ðúêàòà òè, your hand) that were not used by other Slavs. The main morphological features of Old Bulgarian are presence of cases, the presence of a variant of the infinitive form called supine form, synthetic adjective comparison forms, past infinite, past finite, and future simple verb tenses, etc.
The Bulgarian character of the language of Cyril and Methodius was scientifically proven as early as 19th century during the emergence of Slavic linguistics on the basis of the above phonetic features. The most important evidence are the above mentioned diphtongs øò and æä that appear in old Bulgarian manuscripts instead of the proto-Slavic palatals *tj and *dj. This is a typical feature only for Bulgarian: all other Slavic languages have other replacements of these proto-Slavic phonemes. Thus, e.g., the proto-Slavic forms ñâѣò/*tj/à, ìå/*d¼/à in old manuscripts are written as ñâѣøòà, ìåæäà (as they are spoken in modern Bulgarian) unlike the Serbo-Croatian ñâåžà, ìåà, Russian ñâå÷à, ìåæà, Polish swieca, miedza, Czech svice, meze. Moreover, the øò/æä reflex is a feature, characteristic for the whole Bulgarian dialect area. Data from old manuscripts, toponyms, and modern dialects show convincingly that the modern /c/, ƒ /ɟ/ instead of øò, æä, e.g. ñâåà, ãðàƒàíèí for ñâåøòà, ãðàæäàíèí in some Western Bulgarian dialects, especially in those from the central and northern part of Vardar Macedonia and also in some Thracian dialects, are a much later phenomenon. It is indicative in this respect that words with old øò, æä are used alongside the new , ƒ in many of these dialects, e.g. ñâåà alongside with ñâåøòíèê and ìîøíå. Cf. also âåå, è, åðêà, but êúø÷à, ñâåø÷à, ÷óæäèíà, ïðåæäà, âåæäèòå, etc. (Kostur dialect); êóéà, ïîëíî, ïîìåƒó, íåéèò, but ðîæäàò, íîø, ôàøòàò, ñâåø÷à, ãàø÷è, ÷óæ, etc. (Resen dialect). In contrast to the great variety of reflexes in the modern western Bulgarian dialects, old manuscripts contain only øò, æä forms, irrespective of the region from which they originate. Important in this respect is the comparatively recent Bulgarian-Greek dictionary that was written in the Kostur region in 16th century. The dictionary has only øò, æä forms: êàøòà, âÿæäà, ðîæäà.
Another important evidence for the Bulgarian character of the Cyril and Methodius language is the above-mentioned pronunciation of ѣ, which was written in words like õëѣáú, ìëѣêî, âѣðà, etc. Yat (ѣ) was pronounced as /*ja/ or wide å /*e/ which is suggested by the fact that in the glagolithic alphabet invented by Cyril there is only one common letter for ѣ and ѩ. Reliable data show that in 9th-11th century the wide pronunciation of ѣ was spread on the whole language area that included the regions Moesia, Thrace, and Macedonia. As already noted, the former /*ja/ pronunciation of ѣ in the western Bulgarian regions is mainly inferred from old Greek names of some Slavic toponyms in today's Ekavian regions like Πριλιάπος = Ïðèëѣïú, Πρίσδριανα = Ïðèçðѣíú, Δεάβολις = Äѣâîëú, Χτεάτοβο = Õòѣòîâî, Òåòîâî, Τριάδιτσα = Ñðѣäüöü, etc. Western Bulgarian forms like öàäèì (OBg:öѣäèòè), öàíèì (OBg:öѣíèòè), öàëóâàì (OBg:öѣëîâàòè), öàïàì (OBg:öѣïèòè) with a de-palatized (hardened) consonant ö /ts/ in front of the wide vowel /ʲa/ or /e/ are another evidence that the western Bulgarian pronunciation öåë, õëåá, ìåñòî, òåñíî is a late phenomenon.
A third very characteristic feature of the Cyril-Methodius' language is the peculiar nasal pronunciation of the vowels ѫ /*oⁿ/ and ѧ /*eⁿ/. Pronunciation of these vowels is supposed to has been similar to the French /ɔ̃/ in bon and /ɛ̃/ in bien. This is a typical feature of the 9th to 11th century Bulgarian, with a Slavic analog only in Polish language. That in the past this feature was characteristic for the whole language area is concluded, as already pointed out, again from the archaic Slavic toponymy in Greece, from some phonetic features of the old Slavic loan words in Romanian and Albanian language, from the language of the so-called Cherged prayers, reflecting the speech of old re-settlers from Svishtov region of 16th century. Traces of the old nasal pronunciation are found in forms like çúìáè, ìúíêà, ïúíò, ðúíêà, äúìï, ñêúìï, êðúíãîâå, áðàòó÷åíä, ãëåíäàì, ãðåíäà, åðåìáèöà, ÷åíäî, åíäçèê, etc. in the speech of re-settlers from Solun, Kostur, Korca, western Aegean, and other regions. Individual cases of nasalism are found in the Rhodopes dialects.
These typical features for Old Bulgarian has been lost or modified as a result of various influences in the course of language evolution but have persisted and are best preserved in southern dialects — Rhodopes, Southern Thrace and Southern Macedonia. Today the wide ѣ pronunciation, replacements øò, æä for the old palatals *tj, *dj, traces of û, traces of case forms, traces of archaic pronunciation of ѫ and ѧ, the identical pronunciation of ѣ and ѩ (/hlʲab/ or /hlɛb/, /ʲama/ or /ɛma/), the reduction of vowels à, î, å, the reflex of /a/ in /ɛ/ behind fricatives (÷àøà — ÷åøè), etc., approximate the southern Macedonian dialects with the Thracian and Rhodopes dialects. Solun dialects are of eastern Bulgarian (Rup) type.
As well known, on the basis of pronunciation of the old yat vowel, Bulgarian dialects are divided into two major dialect groups — western (Ekavian) and eastern (Yakavian). In the north, the border between Ekavian and Yakavian goes along the river Vit, in the south — along river Mesta in a general direction Nikopol-Solun (see map of the Yat border). Archaic pronunciation of wide e occurs in some dialects along the Yat border, in the Rhodopes and some other southern dialects. In general, to the east of the Yat border, the Old Bulgarian vowel ѣ, when stressed, is pronounced as wide vowel /ʲa/ (/mlˈʲako/, /(h)lˈʲap/) while to the west of the Yat border ѣ is pronounced as /ɛ/ (/mlɛko/, /(h)lɛp/). Data from the old manuscripts, some old toponyms, Bulgarian loan words in other Balkan languages, etc., show that the yat division is relatively recent — the first certain cases of ekavism occur in writings of 13th century. The south-western dialects are partly in the Ekavian, and partly in Yakavian areas. The wide pronunciation of ѣ is preserved in some archaic dialects (Solun, Ser (also Syar /sʲar/), Korca). The above mentioned Bulgarian-Greek dictionary written in 16th century in Kostur reflects the old wide yat sound in words like êîëѩíî, íåâѩñòà, ìëѩêî.
I will try to explain a little bit clearer about the Bulgarian point of view on Church Slavonic language, and why we claim it was Old Bulgarian. It is not about the language itself, it is more a matter of prestige.
During the initial period between 9-11 cetutury A.D. all the books in Old church Slavonic were written within the first Bulgarian empire in the Preslav literary school where the Cyrillic alphabet was created and the Ohrid literary school. ALL OF THEM! The first original text written in Serbia came about three and a half centuries later, the first one written in Russia came about three centuries later. Both states, and all other Slavic states used the books written in Bulgaria, which they COPIED. The Byzantines who conquered Bulgaria halted seriously the development of the Old church Slavonic literature. Afterward the proud Slavs all over Europe didn't produce a single piece of literature in this language, the only ones were written in conquered Bulgaria - some apocrypha, which is more than the original literature written in the whole Slavic world.
The second golden period of the Old church Slavonic literature is connected with guess what? -The rise of the Second Bulgarian empire - the Turnovo literary school in 14th century A.D. again produced the literature for all the Slavic world. Their influence especially in Russia was tremendous - the Russians copied again all the books - they called it "Second south Slavic influence" The first "South Slavic influence" was when they copied the books of the First Bulgarian empire. Of course the Russians don't explain why they called it SOUTH SLAVIC influence, since both times they copied the books from Bulgaria only, due to the fact that at that time the other south Slavs didn't produce anything other than wheat and probably cheese.
So, to sum up briefly - since we produced 99% of the literature in this language and made 99% of the efforts which brought it into existence, we probably thought that we have some sort of a copyright and can call it Old Bulgarian.
great post ivanov but we have to add here that according to the linguists (you know real scientists who actually have knowlegde on the languages they are studying) Bulgarian derived from Old Church Slavonic. So Novis oppinion is irrelevant since he doesnt master Bulgarian (including Simple Bulgarian), serbian or other slavic languages.