Balkan people genetics Dec 29, 2009 12:51:27 GMT -5
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Dec 29, 2009 12:51:27 GMT -5
The Serbs are part of the autochthonous Dinaric-North Mediterranean anthropological groups.
The genetics of Serbs are similar to the neighbouring peoples of the Balkan peninsula because of common origin in several Paleo-Balkan tribes previously (now extinct) inhabiting the Balkans, such as Thracians, Illyrians, Dacians, etc. The subclade E1b1b1a2-V13 is present at high frequencies among the Albanians, Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians and Macedonians and lower numbers in South Italians (up to 20-45%). Subclade J2f1 is at 2.5% in Serbs and Slavic Macedonians. I2a2-M423 is at 29-32% in Serbs and Macedonians and 42% in Croats, as low as 3% in Macedonian Roma, as high as 63% in Herzegovinians. The R1a(common in Slavic groups) is the same in Macedonians and Serbs at 15% and close to Bulgarians at 14%, Greeks and Herzegovinians at 12%, notable gap between the Albanians (7%) and Croats (25%), non-Balkan populations of Cypriots at 6% and Ukrainians at 45%. The most common western European haplogroup R1b values in Serbs are 10.6%, in Cypriots 9.0% being the lowest in Europe, the highest values being Basques 92% and 89% in Welsh, medium values 56% in French. Bosnian Serbs are closer to Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims) than to Croats, the J haplogroup is 5.3% in Serbs and 12% in Bosniaks and almost non-existent among Croats. I-P37 is higher in Croats (71%) than in Serbs (31%) and Bosniaks (44%).
Genetic studies shows that Serbs are in fact of predominantly Balkan genetics (indigenous to the region) and have very small amount of generally considered "Slavic" (R-M458, ranging from 0-12% in the Serbs, Albanians, Macedonians, Greeks and Bulgarians) genes suggesting that Slavic culture and language was passed on by the Serbian "elite" to the Romanized Paleo-Balkan peoples of the conquered region (Serbian lands).
The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts accepts that as a whole the modern Macedonian genotype developed as a result of the absorption by the advancing Slavs of the local peoples living in the region of Macedonia prior to their coming. This position is backed by the findings of most ethnographers such as Vasil Kanchov, Gustav Weigand, and the anthropologist Carleton S. Coon, which state that the Slavs in 6th century actively assimilated other tribal peoples by absorbing part of the indigenous populations of the area, including Greeks, Thracians and Illyrians. By absorbing parts of the peoples living there the Slavs also absorbed their culture, and in that amalgamation a people was gradually formed with predominantly Slavic ethnic elements, speaking a Slavonic language and with a Slavic-Byzantine culture. Furthermore, the genetic studies support the theories that Macedonians genetic heritage is derived from a mixture of ancient Balkan peoples as well as the relatively newly arrived Slavs with deep European roots.
Population genetics studies using HLA loci have been used in light of unanswered questions regarding Macedonians' origins and relationship with other populations. Macedonians are most closely related to other Balkanians as Croats, Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Romanians. It is also corroborated that there is some non-European, inflow in the modern Macedonians.
The modern Bulgarians have descended from three main ethnic groups which mixed in the Balkans during the 6th–10th century: Byzantine populations; Slavic invaders, who gave their language to the modern Bulgarians; and the Bulgars, from whom the ethnonym and the early statehood were inherited.
Anthropological data collected from early Bulgar necropolises from Dobrudja, Crimea and the Ukrainian steppe shows that Bulgars were a high-statured Caucasoid people with a small Mongoloid admixture, and practiced artificial cranial deformation of the round type.
According to some 20th century researchers as William Z. Ripley, Carleton S. Coon and Bertil Lundman the Bulgarians are predominantly Mediterranean people, with unexplained Pre-Pontic, East-Baltic, and Nordic strains, whose roots go back to the Neolithic. However, data from Bulgarian mitochondrial DNA studies suggest that a human demographic expansion occurred sequentially in the Middle East, through Anatolia, to the rest of Europe (Bulgaria included). The rate estimates date of this expansion in times ranging around 50,000 years ago, corresponding to the arrival of anatomically modern humans in Europe. Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup studies suggest an additional route of migration into Europe from Central Asia, via Russia, circa 40,000 years ago. Also according to 21st century studies of their DNA data, the genetic background of the Bulgarians has classical eastern Mediterranean composition. Genetically, modern Bulgarians are more closely related to other Balkan populations (Macedonians, Serbs, Greeks, Romanians, Albanians, Croatians and Hungarians) than to the rest of the Europeans. The Bulgarians also have minor similarities with other Mediterranean populations such as Armenians, Italians, Anatolians, Cretans and Sardinians.
According to Eupedia, the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup results about Bulgarians are the following: R1b – 18%, R1a – 14%, I – 37%, J2 – 17%, E1b1b – 12%. In this way, a majority (>2/3) of the Bulgarians belong to one of the three major European Y-DNA haplogroups – I, R1a and R1b. All three groups migrated to Europe during the Upper Paleolithic, around 30,000 BC. Around 10,000 ago, some neolithic lineages, originating in the Middle East, as J2 and E1b1b, have brought the agriculture to Europe, including today Bulgaria.
Genetically, on the Y chromosome line, a majority (>85%) of Croats belong to one of the three major European Y-DNA haplogroups -- Haplogroup I (45%), Haplogroup R1a (27%) and Haplogroup R1b (13%) . All three groups migrated to Europe during the upper paleolithic around 30,000-20,000 BC.
Later, neolithic lineages, originating in the Middle East and that brought agriculture to Europe, are present in surprisingly low numbers. The haplogroups J, E and G constitute together less than 15% - significantly lower than other populations in the region. Furthermore the dominant presence of haplogroup I is rather interesting. This group exists in Europe only and is fairly widespread, but in relatively small percentages. Its frequency in the Balkans is high, but the only populations that have similar levels of the I group are the Scandinavians. Haplogroup I among Croatians is divided in two major subdivisions - I2a1*(33%),typical for the populations of eastern Adriatic and the Balkans , and I1*(8%),typical for north-western Europeans.Haplogroup I is believed to have weathered the last glacial maximum in the western Balkans, migrating north as the ice sheets retreated.
There are a number of relevant conclusions that can be drawn from the genetic data.
First of all it gives strong support to the theory that the region of modern day Croatia served as a refuge for northern populations during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Eastern Adriatic coast was much more to the south, northern and western parts of that sea were steppes and plains, while modern Croatian islands (rich with the archeological sites from Paleolithic) were hills and mountains. After the LGM, the offspring of these survivors repopulated much of central-eastern and southeastern Europe. Those who remained in the Balkans are the ancestors of about 45% of modern day Croatian men in Croatia,and 73% Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The second conclusion that can be drawn is that the theory of an Iranian origin has little genetic support. Modern-day Iranians have a significantly different haplogroup distribution, although Iranic speaking communities have lived in eastern Europe. However, Moldova on the border of Ukraine, which in the beginning of our era was dominated by the Iranian-speaking Alans also has a high frequency of haplogroup I so that theory might be true after all. The low frequency of Anatolian haplogroups suggests that agriculture spread into the region of Croatia primarily by way of cultural contact.
And the third conclusion from the genetic evidence points to the fact Croats are genetically heterogeneous, pointing to a high degree of mixing of the newly arrived medieval migrant tribes (such as Slavs) with the indigenous populations that were already present in the region of the modern day Croatia. Hence, most modern day Croats are descended from the original European population of the region and have lived in the territory by other names, such as Illyrians and their forebears. These original inhabitants also served an important role in re-populating Europe after the last ice age.
It was then that the Slavs, a people from northeastern Europe, colonized the Eastern Roman Empire with their Avar allies and settled in the regions which now comprise modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Here, they assimilated various tribes generically referred to as Illyrians, who were the earliest attestable inhabitants of the region. This fusion with the indigenous population of the region has been suggested by genetic studies, which show that the earliest (genetic) roots of the Bosniak people (as well as those of other ethnic groups in Bosnia) can be traced back to the ancient populations that expanded from the Balkans following the Last Glacial Maximum 21 thousand years ago. These studies have indicated that the dominant Y-chromosome haplogroupI, found in Bosniaks, and specifically its sub-haplogroup I-P37 are associated with these paleolithic settlers. The name Bosnia - derived from the Bosna river - is itself probably of Illyrian origin: Bosona (Bosnian: Bosna) and a testament to the Illyrian heritage of the region.
18th century Bosniaks on a day trip to Mount Vranduk at the Bosna river.
This fusion gave rise to a new body of peoples - the South Slavs - to which modern Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs, and Montenegrins all belong. Although linguistically very similar, the South Slavs remained separated into numerous tribes during the early medieval period. By the 9th century, some gradually coalesced into political entities. The first reference to, Bosnia was in the De Administrando Imperio, describing it as a chorion of Serbia. It was a much smaller region than the modern-day state, being roughly demarcated by the river Bosna and the river Drina.
Vlachs have a similar genetic structure compared to other southeastern Europeans. Population genetics analyses have demonstrated significant molecular variance among different Vlach groups, suggesting that they do not constitute a homogeneous group. Instead, most of the tested Vlach groups were genetically similar to their Greek and Slavic-speaking neighbours.
Bosch et al. attempted to analyze whether Vlachs are the descendents of Latinized Dacians, Illyrians, Thracians, Greeks, or a combination of the above. No hypothesis could be proven due to the high degree of underlying genetic similarity possessed by all the tested Balkan groups. The linguistic and cultural differences among various Balkan groups were thus deemed to be have not been strong enough to prevent significant gene flow among the above groups.
Small genetic differences were reportedly found among Southeastern European populations and especially those of the Dniester–Carpathian region. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations reportedly do not reflect their linguistic relationships. One Romanian study claims that ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other.
A recent study reflects eminent genetic similarity between the old Thracian individuals and modern populations from Southeastern Europe Computing the frequency of common point mutations of the present-day European population with the Thracian population has resulted that the Italian (7,9%), the Alban (6,3%) and the Greek (5,8%) have shown a bias of closer genetic kinship with the Thracian individuals than the Romanian and Bulgarian individuals (only 4,2%).
So far it can only be supposed, that the old Thracian populations would have been able to contribute to the foundation of the Romanian modern genetic pool.
Further information: Genetic history of Europe
Different genetic studies has been made on European population some of them including current Albanian population, Albanian speaking populations outside of Albania, and the Balkan region as a whole.
One of the first studies was that of Belledi et al. (2000) where they suggested that the Albanians share the same ancestry as most other European peoples.
Looking at more recent studies specifically about Y chromosomal lineages, several of the most common lineages in the Balkans vary considerably between the Albanian region and other neighbouring regions. The two haplogroups most strongly associated with the Albanian area are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene epoch. From here in the Balkans, it is thought, they spread to the rest of Europe.
The distribution of E-V13 in Europe
* Y haplogroup E1b1b (E-M35) in the modern Balkan population is dominated by its sub-clade E1b1b1a (E-M78) and specifically by the most common European sub-clade of E-M78, E-V13. The area in and around Albanian speaking regions has the highest known percentages E-V13 in the world, and it is thought that the majority of E-V13 in Europe and elsewhere descend from a common ancestor who lived in the Balkans in the late Mesolithic or Neolithic, and that men of this lineage began to spread outside the Balkans as early as the Neolithic, or even as recently as the Roman era.
* Y haplogroup J in the modern Balkans is mainly represented by the sub-clade J2b (also known as J-M12 or J-M102 for example). Like E-V13, this clade is spread throughout Europe with a seeming centre and origin near to Albania.
Common in the Balkans but not specifically associated with Albania and the Albanian language are I-M423 and R1a-M17:
* Y haplogroup I is only found in Europe, and may have been there since before the LGM. Several of its sub-clades are found in significant amounts in the Balkans. The specific I sub-clade which has attracted most discussion in Balkan studies currently referred to as I2a2, defined by SNP M423 This clade has higher frequencies to the north of the Albanophone area, in Dalmatia and Bosnia.
* Haplogroup R1a is common in Central and Eastern Europe (and is also common in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent). In the Balkans, it is strongly associated with Slavic areas.
The other most common Y haplogroup in the Balkans has strong associations with many parts of Europe:
* Haplogroup R1b is common all over Europe but especially common on the western Atlantic coast of Europe, and is also found in the Middle East and some parts of Africa. In Europe including the Balkans, it tends to be less common in Slavic speaking areas, where R1a is often the most common haplogroup. It shows similar frequencies of around 20% amongst Albanians and Greeks at around 20% of the male population, but is much less common in Serbia and Bosnia.
Another study regarding old Balkan populations and their genetic affinities with current European populations has been carried out in 2004, based upon mitochondrial DNA on the skeletal remains of some old Thracian populations from SE of Romania, dating from the Bronze and Iron Age. This study was during excavations some human fossil bones of 20 individuals dating about 3200-4100 years, from the Bronze Age, belonging to some cultures such as Tei, Monteoru and Noua were found in graves from some necropoles in SE of Romania, namely in Zimnicea, Smeeni, Candesti, Cioinagi-Balintesti, Gradistea-Coslogeni and Sultana-Malu Rosu and the human fossil bones and teeth of 27 individuals from the early Iron Age, dating from the 10th -7th century B.C. from the Hallstatt Era (the Babadag Culture), were found extremely SE of Romania near the Black Sea coast, in some settlements from Dobrogea, namely: Jurilovca, Satu Nou, Babadag, Niculitel and Enisala-Palanca. After comparing this material with the present-day European population the authors concluded:
Computing the frequency of common point mutations of the present-day European population with the Thracian population has resulted that the Italian (7.9 %), the Albanian (6.3 %) and the Greek (5.8 %) have shown a bias of closer genetic kinship with the Thracian individuals than the Romanian and Bulgarian individuals (only 4.2%).
"A cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Balkans and Southern Italy, spreading to lowest levels in Britain and the Basque country. Cavalli-Sforza associates this with "the Greek expansion, which reached its peak in historical times around 1000 and 500 BC but which certainly began earlier""
"Indeed, Romance-speaking populations in the Balkans have been found to genetically resemble neighbouring Greek and Slavic-speaking peoples rather than modern Italians."
A striking demonstration of the persistence of the Greek genetic signature through time can be found in . The figure on the right is the 4th principal component of variation in Europe and shows a strong cline centered in Greece. Not only is the Greek genetic legacy clearly detectible today, but it is detectible among not only the Greeks, but all their neighboring populations of partial Greek ancestry
"strongly reminiscent of Greek colonization in the first millennium B.C. "
It has often been suggested that the Xiongnu, mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-Turkic speakers. Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least some Xiongnu tribes spoke an Altaic (Turkic) language. Some scholars see a possible connection with the Iranic-speaking Sakas, while others believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups. On the other hand, genetics research from 2003 confirms the studies indicating that the Turkic people originated from the same area and so are related with the Xiongnu.
Genetic origins of the Turkish people
Native Anatolians began to use Altaic languages instead of Indo-European languages after the migration of Turkic speaking groups into Anatolia. Scientists have long debated the extent to which this shift in language was accompanied by a genetic replacement of the former population, and it has been concluded that despite the overemphasis on their Central Asian roots, the Anatolian Turks are overwhelmingly indigenous to the area and they are in no sense racially Mongoloid.
Later during the late Roman Period, prior to the Mongol invasion, the population of Anatolia had reached an estimated level of over 12 million people . The Oghuz Turks were the main Turkic people that moved into Anatolia. Many Turks began their migration after the victory of the Seljuks against the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. In the centuries after the Battle of Malazgirt local populations began to assimilate to the emerging Turkish population. Around 1,000,000 Turkic migrants settled in Anatolia in 12th and 13th centuries.
Recent genetic research has suggested the local, Anatolian origins of the Turks and that genetic flow between Turks and Asiatic peoples might have been marginal.