Illyria: Hellenistic and Roman influence Mar 28, 2011 1:31:06 GMT -5
Post by Emperor AAdmin on Mar 28, 2011 1:31:06 GMT -5
The graves of Illyrian nobles (early Iron age, 7th century BC – 5th century BC) contained a great number of Greek imports including weaponry. This includes finds at Glasinac Plateau (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Lake Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia, Dolensko (Slovenia) and various sites in Albania. The Glasinac-Mati cultural complex encompasses eastern Bosnia,south-western Serbia Montenegro and northern Albania. Ancient Greek Illyrian type helmets either as imports or later copies had spread throughout Illyria and one was found as far as Slovenia(though again in the grave of a king) not only in the Glasinac-Mati cultural complex like the helmet found in the grave at Klicevo, Montenegro. The Greek helmets found in some of these sites were of type I and very few of type II.
Illyrians on the coast of the Adriatic were under the effects and influence of Hellenisation due to their proximity to the Greek colonies in Illyria. Apart from other cultural influences and imported weapons and armor from the Ancient Greeks the Illyrians had adopted the ornamentation of Ancient Macedon on their shields and their war belts (a single one has been found ,dated 3rd century BC at modern Selce e Poshtme part of Macedon at the time under Philip V of Macedon and before that border between Chaonia and Illyria). The Illyrians used four concentric half circles whilst the Macedonians five. This ancient Greek symbol was prominent in Thessaly and Macedon appearing in the 10th century BC and had spread throughout southern Greece. A typical adoption of the symbol in the Hellenistic period from Illyrians is seen on an iron round pelte with similar decorations and a diameter of 35 cm. This is evident during the Greek rule of south Illyria the Antipatrid dynasty & the Antigonid dynasty retained until the Roman conquest. Tactics had been influenced as well, evident in an incident involving Dardanians. The hellenised city of Daorson located in Dalmatia included "cyclopean walls".
81^ a b c Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5,page 240,"Body armour,breastplates (see figure 31) greaves and helmets were the privilege of a minority with a few examples of full body protection being known only in the Dolensko region of Slovenia."
114^ a b c d e European Journal of Archeology volume 5(1);70-88,Sage publications and European association of Archeologists(1461-9571-2002045:1;70-88;0221771)
115^ Trebenishte: the fortunes of an unusual excavation Studia archaeologica ("Erma" di Bretschneider) ; 121,ISBN 88-8265-212-2,2003
116^ Trebenishte: the fortunes of an unusual excavation Studia archaeologica ("Erma" di Bretschneider) ; 121,ISBN 88-8265-212-2,2003,page 117-118,National museum Belgrade
117^ Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and Sarah B. Pomeroy. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Oxford University Press,page 255,
118^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor),ISBN 0-521-23348-8,1994,page 423,"Through contact with their Greek neighbors some Illyrian tribe became bilingual (Strabo Vii.7.8.Diglottoi) in particular the Bylliones and the Taulantian tribes close to Epidamnus"
119^ a b Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001 : papers in honour of J.J by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin,2006,page 21,"completely Hellenised town"
120^ The Illyrians: history and culture,History and Culture Series,The Illyrians: History and Culture,Aleksandar Stipčević,ISBN 0-8155-5052-9,1977,page 174
121^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,page 233&236,"The Illyrians liked decorated belt-buckles or clasps (see figure 29). Some of gold and silver with openwork designs of stylised birds have a similar distribution to the Mramorac bracelets and may also have been producted under Greek influence."
122^ Carte de la Macédoine et du monde égéen vers 200 av. J.-C.
123^ The Cambridge ancient history,Tome 6 by John Boardman,ISBN-0521850738,1994,page 440
124^ Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity by Jonathan M. Hall ,2000,ISBN 0-521-78999-0,page 116,"early appearance of this motiff in Thessaly and Makedonia, from where it was diffused southwards "
125^ The Illyrians by John Wilkes ,ISBN 0-631-19807-5,1996,page 150,"This episode shows how much the Dardanians had been influenced by the military traditions of the Hellenistic world"
126^ Urbano biće Bosne i Hercegovine - page 27 by Seka Brkljača - 1996, "Its name was Daorson. It belonged to the Hellenistic civilization and sphere of the Greek culture. Its 46 meters of the old fortress are preserved"
Illyria became a Roman province at 168 BC. The Illyrians, that were eventually Romanized rebelled in AD 6. Nearly two hundred years of Roman rule changed the weapons of the Illyrians by the time of the rebellion and they resembled those of Roman legionaries. The tribes that rebelled had been Celticized by the time Romans conquered Illyria in 168 BC and their equipment reflected this. Inhabitants of Roman Dalmatia applied a poison on their arrows called ninum. This was not a Roman influence but was mentioned during that time.
127^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996,ISBN 978-0-631-19807-9,page 222